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R-37M and R-77-1: Russia’s Long-Range Hypersonic Missiles are Terrorizing Ukraine

R-37M Missile
R-37M missile. Image Credit: Creative Commons.

Russia has learned how to reach out and touch someone in the skies over Ukraine, and I’m not talking about kindness. The Russian air force is using a long-range missile, and a “very” long-range missile fired from its fighters to blast Ukrainian warplanes, according to a research paper by British policy institute RUSI. The report interviewed a handful of Ukrainian air commanders, and they admitted the missiles appear to be doing damage to friendly forces.

R-37M and R-77-1: Ukraine Needs to Watch Out

These things are fast – hypersonic speeds of up to MACH 6. And they are as long-range as advertised – as far as 250 miles away. That means the Russian MiG-31 Foxhound jets can stay out of the range of Ukrainian air defenses and fire at will. The ultra-fast and long-range missiles have reportedly shot down Ukraine’s Su-25 Frogfoots (Russia’s version of the A-10 Warthog) and its Cold War relic, the Su-24 Fencer bomber.

Specs Are Impressive 

The very long-range air-to-air missile is the R-37M and the long-range air-to-air missile is the R-77-1. The R-37M is 13 feet long and weighs 1,320 pounds. It uses inertial guidance and radar for the terminal phase. The R-77-1 has a shorter range of 68 miles, it’s even sometimes described as a medium-range missile and uses active radar homing for guidance. But this shorter range still means Russia has the advantage of staying out of sight and engaging Ukrainian fighters. The R-77-1 is usually launched by the Su-35S fighter and the Su-34 fighter bomber.

Shoe Is on the Other Foot

This is a turn of events for the Russian air force which has been criticized for its poor performance and failure to create air superiority over Ukraine. On one hand, it shows Russia is still afraid of Ukrainian surface-to-air missiles, on the other hand, it displays a knack for getting the right weapons into the hands of warfighters.  

Russian Pilots Have Something to Squawk About

At least one Russian pilot has bragged on state-run media about bagging enemy fighters with R-37Ms and the R-77-1. The video claimed the pilot had killed up to nine Ukrainian warplanes during the war, but this is unconfirmed. 

One American Pilot Is Skeptical

Not all observers are in love with the Russian long-range and very long-range missiles. U.S. Air Force pilot Colonel Jeffrey Fischer believes that fast and maneuverable airplanes can outfly the missiles.

Cat and Mouse Game

Russian fighters do not often chase the Ukrainians for close-up kills due to the effectiveness of the home team’s SAMs, but the long ranges should give air force planners pause as they consider tactics to identify the Russian missiles earlier and conduct evasive maneuvers. They also may want to keep low-flying and slower airplanes from straying too close to the Ukrainian border with Russia.

Russia could also be running low on the R-37M as the think tank research firm said they were firing six a day in October. More use of the R-37M could also mean a shortage of the less rangy R-77-1, according to Fischer.

R-37M Missile.

R-37M missile.

Time for Ukrainian Pilots to Wise Up on R-37M

Very long-range missiles were previously thought to be more suited for targeting slower-moving bombers, air combat control, and tanker aircraft. If the Russian Air Force is having success against faster-flying airplanes, it probably means the Ukrainians need to make an adjustment.

The use of these missiles is a significant development for the air war and shows that Russia can strike back when its back is to the wall. Ukraine’s Air Force will be warning its pilots about the long range of the missiles and encourage them to be on the lookout. What other tricks do Russian pilots have up their sleeves? Will they get confident enough to engage in close-in dogfights with the Ukrainians? We will keep an eye on these developments as the winter weather may bring ground fighting into a slower phase and the air war may heat up more.

Expert Biography: Serving as 1945’s Defense and National Security Editor, Dr. Brent M. Eastwood is the author of Humans, Machines, and Data: Future Trends in Warfare. He is an Emerging Threats expert and former U.S. Army Infantry officer. You can follow him on Twitter @BMEastwood. He holds a Ph.D. in Political Science and Foreign Policy/ International Relations.

Written By

Now serving as 1945s New Defense and National Security Editor, Brent M. Eastwood, PhD, is the author of Humans, Machines, and Data: Future Trends in Warfare. He is an Emerging Threats expert and former U.S. Army Infantry officer.




    November 17, 2022 at 6:38 pm


  2. 403Forbidden

    November 17, 2022 at 7:02 pm

    Heh, heh, Mr Eastwood, the Russians certainly have a few aces up their sleeves.

    If I were in charge of the Russian Armed Forces, I would order the missile developers to come up with a 500km air-to-air missile guided by optical-infra-red sensors activated and controlled via a feedback loop connected to the weapons system officer in the rear seat of the MiG.

    Such a missile will be totally immune to aerial decoys now available for use by western jets like the typhoon and the super hornet.

    The rampaging & unfettered NATO air forces will have to think twice before trying to start any mischief on Russia.

  3. Steven

    November 18, 2022 at 12:55 am

    Ukraine war is showing manned aircraft probably should be relegated to the bone yard.
    Drones are increasingly picking up the slack while artillery and medium range rockets such as the HIMAR’s are doing a reasonable job of medium range interdiction.
    This, despite Ukraine having primarily Soviet era S300 medium range air defense, plus short range, tactical, shoulder fired Stinger category air defense, with thousands of these weapons being fired at helicopters and low flying aircraft, with mounting losses in aircrew, and fixed and rotary wing aircraft.
    Perhaps a fifth generation stealth aircraft can survive over the battlefield, but it’s unlikely western Allie’s would even think about deploying such aircraft.
    Increasing numbers of more modern medium range air defense missiles are starting to be deployed, since Putin is resorting to attacking civilian infrastructure, essentially a war crime, and western Allie’s are responding by contributing air defense missiles for use against drones, missiles and aircraft.
    Attacking civilian infrastructure is more of a political than military strategy, probably meant to placate hardliners in Russia.
    Keep increasing air defense missiles and medium range rockets, with limited use of long range rockets and missiles for the deep interdiction mission, while adding to the arsenal of anti-ship missiles, since area denial of Russian shipping and military watercraft on the Black Sea and Sea of Azov will be necessary to neutralize if not destroy Russian military power in the region.
    Flying aircraft over the battlefield, except for very specific, time limited missions, is becoming increasingly suicidal for air craw and expensive in irreplaceable aircraft.

  4. Big Crow

    November 18, 2022 at 6:31 am

    Seems to me everyone is having a ball getting rid of old armament here and trying out the new stuff in the process. Thanks Ukraine.

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